Dichotomous key to Xylariaceous genera


Illustration of characters
For the moment, only Biscogniauxia, Creosphaeria, Entoleuca, Euepixylon, Hypoxylon and Kretzschmaria are available.

Xylariaceous fungi having multiperitheciate stromata (except Creosphaeria) that are not stalked nor with concentric fibrous rings Key 1
Not as above Key 2

Key 1: genera formerly classified as Hypoxylon
1- Stromata partially immersed, ascospores with conspicuous poroid germ site Euepixylon
1- Stromata superficial, ascospores with elongated germ slit, more rarely without apparent germ slit 2
2- Stromata crust-like, thick (>2mm), weakly attached to the substrate Kretzschmaria
2- Stromata thinner, more widely attached to the substrate 3
3- Ascal apical ring discoid, broader than high 4
3- Ascal apical ring inverted hat-shaped, higher than broad 6
4- Stromata applanate or cupulate, carbonaceous, when young with an outer dehiscing layer, without KOH-extractable pigments Biscogniauxia
4- Stromata applanate, pulvinate or hemispherical, waxy, usually coloured and yielding KOH-extractable pigments 5
5- Stromata uniperitheciate, coalescent in linear rows; perithecia globose, large, > 1mm diam; anamorph Libertella Creosphaeria
5- Stromata multiperitheciate; perithecia obovoid, tubular, when globose <1mm diam; anamorph Nodulisporium-like Hypoxylon
6- Stromata erumpent from bark, perithecia large, > 1mm diam Entoleuca
6- Stromata not erumpent, perithecia smaller Nemania


Key 2: other xylariaceous genera
1- On dung 2
1- Substrate different 5
2- Stromata uniperitheciate, immersed Hypocopra
2- Stromata multiperitheciate, more or less stipitate 3
3- Asci lacking an apical ring Wawelia
3- Ascii with an apical ring 4
4- Stromata dicoid, flattened, on a short stipe Poronia
4- Stromata pulvinate to rounded, on a short to long filiform stipe Podosordaria
5- Stromata uniperitheciate 6
5- Stromata multiperitheciate 8
6- Each perithecium in a superficial subglobose stroma, often associated with a subiculum Rosellinia
6- Each perithecium immersed in the substrate, under a stroma reduced to a black clypeus 7
7- Ascospores one-celled Lopadostoma subg. Anthostomopsis
7- Ascospores two-celled when young, cellular appendage often present when mature Anthostomella s.l.
8- Stromata yielding pigments in 10% KOH 9
8- Pigments absent 10
9- Stromatal interior with concentric zones Daldinia
9- Stromatal interior hollow, filled with liquid when young Entonaema
10- Stromata stipitate constricted at base Xylaria
10- Stromata non-stipitate 11
11- Stromata effused in bark of Quercus, bipartite, very inconspicuous; asci lacking apical ring Obolarina
11- Stromata pustulate to effused, erumpent to superficial, frequently valsoid; on various hosts; ascal apical ring present Lopadostoma subg. Lopadostoma