Entonaema Möller is a distinctive xylariaceous genus known to have
a tropical distribution, characterized by massive pulvinate, lobed to globose
stromata, the interior being hollow, partially gelatinous, filled with liquid,
in which the perithecia are developing in a single layer beneath a
thin coloured outer crust. Asci and ascospores are typically xylariaceous, the
former cylindrical, with an amyloid apical ring, the latter brown,
ellipsoid, with a germ slit.
Möller (1901) already recognized the
affinities of Entonaema with Xylariaceae and its position as a separate
genus, the most unusual external habit of Entonaema species led to confusions
with other xylariaceous genera (i. e., Xylaria, Penzigia, Sarcoxylon, Engleromyces) or with
members of Hypocreaceae.
Rogers (1981) did a comprehensive
survey of the story of Entonaema and its putative affinities, and one
year later, confirmed Entonaema as a xylariaceous genus in obtaining
a Nodulisporium-like anamorph from E. liquescens
(Stadler et al., 2004a) and molecular
(Triebel et al., 2005)
studies in various xylariaceous genera shed some light on affinities of Entonaema.
The studied members of this genus appear closely related to Hypoxylon
and Daldinia, some of them sharing with Hypoxylon certain specific
compounds (mitorubrins) but yielding in culture same metabolites (naphtalene derivative
and chromone) as Daldinia.
However, at least two Entonaema species (E.
mollucanum and E. pallida) are deviating in lacking mitorubrin
but produce specific still unknown metabolites.
Although these preliminary studies are promising,
Entonaema remains a poorly known genus, owing to the scarce records of
(Stadler et al., 2004a).
Until the records from southern Bulgaria
and the present record from southwestern France, Entonaema
was considered a genus with a tropical distribution
A collection from Estonia is reported as very dubious by