Hypoxylon rubiginosum (Pers.: Fr.) Fr.
Stromata effused, effused-pulvinate to pulvinate, with
inconspicuous to very conspicuous perithecial mounds, 2-80 mm long x 3-30
mm broad x 1-1.3(-2) mm thick; surface rust (39), sienna (8), bay (6),
umber (9) to dark brick (60), usually wrinkled between the
perithecial mounds, with margins yellow to
orange and frequently widely effused when immature; orange brown granules
beneath surface and between perithecia, with KOH-extractable pigments
orange (7) to rust (39) ; the tissue below the perithecial layer
usually conspicuous, up to 1(-1.5) mm thick, dark brown to blackish.
Perithecia spherical to obovoid, 300-650 µm diam x 450-800 µm
Ostioles lower than the stromatal surface, on mature stromata
infrequently surrounded by a ring of white substance 50-70 µm diam.
Asci 130-180 µm total length x 6-9(-10) µm broad, the spore
bearing-parts 56-95 µm long, the stipes 60-98 µm long, with apical ring
amyloid to weakly amyloid, discoid, 0.5-1.5 µm high x 2-2.7 µm broad.
Ascospores brown to dark brown, ellipsoid-inequilateral, 8.8-11(-12) x
4-5.5 µm ( M = 10.1 x 4.4 µm), with straight germ slit spore-length;
perispore dehiscent in 10% KOH, smooth.
Anamorph in nature at margins of young stromata or on old
stromata, buff (45) to honey (64), velvety. Conidiogenous structure
Nodulisporium-like, slightly roughened, yellowish to light brown.
Conidiogenous cells 10-30 x 2-3 µm. Conidia ellipsoid, 5-6 x 3-4 µm,
Habitat: Very common on bark or decorticated wood of various
hosts, mostly Fraxinus, Salix and Ulmus. Also occasionally
found on Acer campestre, Betula pendula, Corylus avellana,
Crataegus oxyacanthae, Cydonia oblonga, Fagus sylvatica, Juglans regia,
Lonicera sp., Malus sylvestris, Populus tremula, Prunus avium,
Prunus spinosa, Quercus robur, Rhamnus catharticus, Tilia
Known distribution: Northern temperate areas. Europe, North
Specimens examined: FRANCE. Ariège(09): Allières,
la Grangette, 10 Sept. 1999, JF-99211, on Tilia platyphyllos;
Aulus, Agnesserre, 14 Sept 1997, JF-97162, on Fagus
sylvatica; Rimont, Las Muros, 03 Nov. 1996,
JF-96161, on Fraxinus excelsior; Rimont, Las Muros, 29 Jul.
1998, JF-98082, on Quercus robur; Rimont, Las Muros, 15 Sept.
1998, JF-98124, on Salix caprea; Rimont, Las
Muros, 02 Sept 2000, JF- 00180, on Fraxinus excelsior;
Rimont, Las Muros, 06 Sept. 2000, JF-00185, on Cydonia
oblonga; Rimont, Las Muros, ruisseau de Peyrau,
25 Sept. 2001, JF-01206, on Juglans regia; Aude (11): Belcaire, chemin de
Trassoulas, 25 May 2001, JF- 01105, on Salix caprea. Pyrénées
Atlantiques (64): Mauléon, Hôpital Saint Blaise, les Barthes, 26 Jun.
1999, JF-99130, on Fraxinus excelsior.
Notes. Hypoxylon rubiginosum has long been a broadly circumscribed
complex of species
Petrini & Müller (1986) were the first
to recognize H. rubiginosum in the narrow sense adopted herein, separating
it from two taxa to which they gave the varietal rank,
H. rubiginosum (Pers.:Fr.) Fr.var. cercidicola (Berk.& Curtis ex Peck)
L.E. Petrini and H. rubiginosum (Pers.: Fr.) Fr.var.
perforatum ( Schw.) L. E. Petrini. In their revision of the genus Hypoxylon,
Ju & Rogers (1996)
assessed that all tropical species formerly included
under the epithet rubiginosum could be separated from the North temperate
taxon based on pigments yielded in KOH and morphological and cultural
data. They likewise considered
H. perforatum (Schw.:Fr.)Fr. a distinct
species owing to its amber pigments in KOH and its Virgariella-like anamorph.
More recently, chemical data provided by HPLC techniques confirmed the presence
of a peculiar secondary metabolite (hypomiltin) in stromata of H. perforatum
(Stadler et al., 2005)
and confirmed that the morphological differences between
H. rubiginosum and its variety cercidicola were supported by differences
in secondary metabolites
(Stadler et al., 2004b).
The new name
Stadler & Fournier was given to this former variety, for the
epithet cercidicola remains ambiguous. (See notes under
As to HPLC profile, H. rubiginosum is characterized by the association
of mitorubrin, rubiginosin A and orsellinic acid as main secondary metabolites
(Stadler et al., 2004b).
Rubiginosins B and C, rubiginosic acid, entonaemin A and daldinin
C were additional compounds recently isolated
(Quang et al., 2004)
Among the other Hypoxylon species sharing with H.
rubiginosum its stromatal colour and its orange KOH-extractable
differs in having papillate ostioles and ascospores
averaging less than 10 µm long,
cercidicolum differs in having a swollen stellate stromatal margin
and an inamyloid apical ring,
H. ferrugineum and
differ in having ascospores averaging more than 15 µm long, and
differs in having erumpent pulvinate stromata and ascospores averaging
less than 10 µm long.
a taxon recently recorded from Europe for the first time, is much like
H. rubiginosum in gross morphology. Its immature stromata are distinctive
in having a brighter orange colour and greyish discs around ostioles; moreover,
its ascospores are larger and have a sigmoid germ slit.
ticinense and H.
subticinense differ mainly from H. rubiginosum in their
peculiar discoid undulate stromata, lying on a thick black basal tissue,
lined with a yellow fimbriate margin when young. Moreover, the former
differs in having ascospores averaging less than 7 µm long, while the
latter differs in having ellipsoid-equilateral ascospores.
Two recently described species closely related to
H. rubiginosum are H. liviae
(Granmo, 2001) and
Both are host specific, the former is specific for Sorbus aucuparia,
the latter for Salix sp., and are likely to have a boreal distribution.
These two species are still unknown from France.
Hypoxylon liviae differs from
H. rubiginosum in having whitish
pruinose brown stromata, yellow stromatal granules yielding luteous
(12) to sienna (8) pigments in 10% KOH, and dark brown nearly equilateral ascospores.
Hypoxylon salicicola is much like
H. rubiginosum and differs
primarily in having smaller perithecia 0.1-0.35 mm diam and smaller ascospores
7-10 x 3-4.5 µm.
Ju and Rogers (1996)
cultured it and observed a Nodulisporium-like
anamorph, but growing more slowly than that of